Integrated circuits (ICs) are circuits consisting of several components such as transistors, resistors, and capacitors as well as other integrated components. These circuits are used in a wide variety of applications including computers, mobile phones, digital television, and audio equipment. ICs are designed to be small, reliable, and be able to perform complex tasks while consuming very little power. The core of the IC is made up of a series of layers that are patterned to create the electrical pathways of the circuit. When the IC is connected to the power supply, the electrical current travels through the circuit in a predetermined manner. This allows for a high degree of integration, meaning that many of the components would usually be found in stand-alone circuits can now be combined into a single IC.